Chard are decorative plants that beautify the garden, they are also called pear or chard in some areas. Their large, blistered, shiny, green leaves have a fleshy petiole that is yellow, red, or white depending on the variety. It is a vegetable that is sometimes sown in flowerbeds in ornamental gardens. She is close to the beetroot.

When to sow chard?

The chards are sown during the period from April to mid-June on lines about 40 cm apart. A single seed should be placed every 5 cm or in bags spaced 30 cm apart and composed of 3 to 4 seeds. Once the seeds have risen, the plants must be thinned to obtain a plant every 40 cm.

In areas where frost is late, you can start sowing under shelter in March and transplant the plants after the cold period of mid-May. You will harvest 5 kg per m² for 9 plants per m².

Which varieties of chard to choose?

We note that different varieties of chard exist that are differentiated by the color of their cards and their ribs.

  • Blonde pear with white card : it has a beautiful light green foliage with broad, non-stringy ribs. She is very productive and tasty. It resists heat sows from March to July and is harvested from June until the first frosts. They can be harvested from 10 weeks of sowing.
  • The bright lights : young, it is eaten raw or cooked. His cards are pink, purple, orange or yellow. It sows from April to June and is harvested from May until the first frosts, between 4 and 10 weeks after sowing. You can place it in massive, because it is very decorative in winter.
  • Green-carded green pear It is early, cold-hardy and has dark green foliage and thin, vermilion-red ribs. It sows from March to July and is harvested from June until frost, and even in winter, after 10 weeks of sowing.
  • Lucullus : is an intermediate variety between the cutter and the broadband. The leaves are delicious when they are young. You will sow it between March and July and harvest it from June to the first frost, that is to say about 10 weeks after sowing. Its leaves are blond to light green, embossed and the ribs are narrow, long and have a pleasant flavor.
  • The Rhubarb Chard : it is a very tasty chard that can be eaten raw in salad or cooked. You just have to know that the leaves lose their hue during cooking. It is sown from March to July and you start harvesting in June until frost, 10 weeks after sowing. It owes its name to the fact that it recalls rhubarb. It is very aesthetic with its green foliage with carmine highlights and bright red veins.

What to do before sowing Swiss chard?

Before seeding, it is essential to amend the soil in autumn and enrich it with horticultural compost, manure or compost. It must be carefully prepared by removing pebbles, roots and weeds. At the time of the semi, it will prepare the ground very finely rake.

How to sow them?

To sow chard, the approach is quite simple:

  • Start with a shallow furrow and sow lightly.
  • If you have decided to sow on several lines, it is necessary to space them by 40 cm.
  • Then cover the seedling with one centimeter of soil.
  • Tamp and sprinkle slightly to promote starting.
  • Once your seeds have risen, lighten the line by keeping only one plant, every 40 cm.

If the temperatures do not drop below -6 ° C, they can spend the whole winter in the garden. It is still recommended to mulch the feet.

Crop rotation helps prevent soil from being depleted. It is indeed greedy in nitrogen, it is better to sow after having cultivated legumes like the bean, the soya or the rapeseed or after a green manure.

Plant the chard

Before you start to plant your chard purchased in pots, you will loosen the soil, but be careful without turning it upside down.

  • Modify your soil with a little sand to ensure good drainage.
  • Place the beet seedlings spaced 40 to 50 cm apart.
  • Top up and then tamp gently to avoid damaging the roots.
  • Keep the soil cool to avoid too much watering, you water as soon as the soil is dry on the surface.
  • Be careful to water the soil and not the leaves, they may rot.

Where to plant the chard?

Chard Rhubarb Charb

The perry likes light soils, a little salty, she likes the gardens by the sea, soft, deep, rich, but without fresh manure. She also enjoys sunny places. You can perfectly grow it in the kitchen garden, but also in solid for the most beautiful varieties.

How to maintain them?

Before the first frosts appear, cut the leaves to the ground. If the temperatures are negative, you will have to protect them under bells or under a wintering veil. You can also make a mound of earth up to the leaves and mulch it all. In spring, the young leaves are eaten in salads. They then reseed themselves, once mounted in seeds, thanks to the wind.

After the winter, remove the mulch to allow the leaves to flourish.

Bine and weed regularly.

How to water the chard?

Water the soil to keep the soil cool and especially during periods of drought.

During the summer, when it rains too little, you can mulch your soil perfectly in order to limit the phenomenon of evaporation of the water and continue to carry out regular weeding.

Harvesting chards: when and how?

You can start harvesting your chard as soon as the first leaves reach 20 to 25 cm high. Always start by cutting the most beautiful leaves, usually located around the plant. You will see that the leaves will appear in the center of the plant. You will have to cut them with pruning shears or with the hand by folding and tearing the base of the petiole.

Be very careful not to pull too hard, because the baby is not very anchored to the ground and easily uproots.

If you inadvertently take roots at the same time and they are not damaged, put the plant back in the ground very quickly, often it works well, even if the plant is puny.

Once the leaves are cut, they tend to get damaged quickly. They must be kept in the refrigerator and consumed quickly.

The diseases of the chard and what to do?

Swiss chard are vegetables susceptible to diseases and parasites.

  • Sigatoka leaf spot: it manifests itself as round, yellowish-colored round spots surrounded by a reddish circle. The leaves that are affected dry easily. To avoid this disease or its appearance, spray Bordeaux mixture. You will also remove the leaves that show the first symptoms.
  • The jaundice of the perry it is manifested by the yellow hue of the deforming leaves of the heart. These are bites of aphids that cause this disease. They must be treated with a vegetable insecticide or black soap and burn the leaves that are affected.
  • Mildew of pears you recognize it with the grayish spots on which the blette is covered. Once again the spray Bordeaux mixture will come to the end. And to avoid it, practice the rotation of cultures and it will be necessary to opt for a fertilization and fertilization deficient in nitrogen.
  • The rust of the perry : easily recognized by orange rust spots on the leaves. They end up dying. The treatments are the same as for the late blight. You just have to burn the affected leaves.
  • Flea beetles : this disease makes holes in the leaves and stops the vegetative process. To avoid their invasion, regularly remove weeds, leaves or other plant detritus. Strike your feet or put ashes, it effectively removes them.
  • The atomaire : the plants are cut at the level of the neck, it is then necessary to treat with a decoction of pyrethrum and to practice as much as possible the rotation of cultures to avoid this problem. Frequent binages are also effective.
  • The black aphid : it attacks the leaves which then deform. It can also be treated with pyrethrum mixed with pine oil in the evening or with black soap or manure of fern.
  • The opaque silox They are black insects, but the problem is their larvae are voracious and attack the leaves. A decoction of pyrethrum is necessary when the invasion is important, it is always pulverized at night.
  • Wireworm larvae commonly known as iron wire they make holes in the neck and the plants are slowly withering away. The simplest is to set traps.
  • The white worm : it destroys the roots, you eliminate it thanks to regular watering with fern manure before sowing.

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